Brokers of trading carbon credit in india ppt
Overall the initial challenge of learning and understanding the terminology and convoluted process required to engage in carbon offset markets, as well as identifying partners and resources was daunting and required a lot of time and commitment. The uncertainty within the United States and lack of federal legislation on climate change has reduced the current value of carbon and the willingness of the tribe to invest in carbon offset projects.
A growing number of firms specializing in developing forest management strategies to quantify and market carbon offsets using the various and evolving carbon registries or standards are contacting tribes with the desire to capitalize on the vast area of tribal forest lands across the country. There is reluctance among tribes to trust outside firms interested in developing plans for tribal forest lands, verifying existing tribal forest inventories, certifying tribal forest management plans, and brokering the carbon offsets.
Many tribes have competent inventory and planning departments fully capable of determining carbon inventories and developing local management strategies to enhance carbon sequestration, but need a clear set of guidelines rather than the evolving array of registries and associated standards currently used to quantify carbon so that projects can be implemented with consistency and confidence.
Stability in the price of carbon is also needed to justify investment and minimize risk. Speculation that the price of carbon offsets will significantly increase if legislation is approved has created a reluctance to sell at prices where the cost of project development, forest certification, third party verification, and brokerage fees account for a significant portion of the potential revenue.
A general recommendation based on experience to date is to become educated and involved, but wait until legislation materializes and markets mature. The Nez Perce Tribal Forestry Division has interacted with several carbon offset organizations over the past 14 years. Those working relationships grew and eventually lead to the Nez Perce being included in the U. Funds from this grant enabled the tribe to help educate themselves and other tribes.
Another organization, the Environmental Defense Fund, contacted the tribe about their afforestation efforts and offered the Nez Perce the opportunity to be a consultant in evaluating criteria in the book "Harnessing Farms and Forests in the Low-Carbon Economy, How to Create, Measure, and Verify Greenhouse Gas Offsets".
It was this funding that really expanded the tribes knowledge of Carbon markets outside of the CCX. There are currently 3, enrolled members of the Nez Perce Tribe.
In , the US Government entered into a Treaty with the Nez Perce, securing 7,, acres in exchange for outlying areas of Tribal domain. With the discovery of gold in on the Reservation, the Treaty of diminished Tribal lands to about , acres. Under the Dawes Act of , Reservation land was allotted to individual Tribal members. The Tribe reserved 32, acres to be held in common, and about , acres in 2, allotments were allotted to individual Indian ownership.
The Tribe ceded approximately , acres to the United States. In , the Reservation was opened to homesteading, resulting in non-Indians owning parcels of fee-patented land within the Reservation and adjacent to Indian-owned allotments, creating a checkerboard pattern of land ownership on the Reservation. During the early 's much of the land owned by individual Indians was sold or transferred out of Indian ownership. By the 's, Nez Perce individual allotment lands totaled only 57, acres compared to the original allotment holdings of over , acres Babcock et al.
Tribal trust, purchase and allotted lands account for approximately Other lands on the reservation are owned by private individuals and federal and state agencies. The Tribe has been engaged in re-acquiring former tribal lands on the reservation. Elevations range from less than feet above sea level on the Clearwater River at Hatwai Creek, to nearly 5, feet above sea level on the Salmon River Divide. Goals of CCX are to facilitate the transaction of GHG allowance trading with price transparency, design excellence and environmental integrity; build the skills and institutions needed to cost-effectively manage GHGs; facilitate capacity-building in both public and private sectors to facilitate GHG mitigation; strengthen the intellectual framework required for cost effective and valid GHG reduction; and help inform the public debate on managing the risk of global climate change.
Tribal Climate Change Profile Project: The University of Oregon and the USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station are embarking on a project to develop tribal climate change project profiles as a pathway to increasing knowledge among tribal and non-tribal organizations interested in learning about climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts.
The owners of land or a business that undertake an activity or adopt a practice that sequesters carbon or reduces emissions. Responsible for all aspects of the delivery of the carbon offset, including the development of project methodologies, baseline determinations, additionality analysis, and monitoring plans. May share similar functions as the project developer while also bringing together smaller projects in marketable volumes to buyers, brokers, or exchanges.
Project developers also known as offset providers may decide to enlist the services of a broker to market offsets and to act as an intermediary with potential buyers. Brokers sort through potential investment opportunities for buyers and create portfolios scalable for large investor demand. An integral process in the establishment of carbon offset quality and project integrity is independent verification of project offsets by a third-party agent.
Verifiers may conduct field based carbon measurements or perform remote audits of entity reports, verifying that registry or standard measurement protocols have been followed during the development of the project and implementation of monitoring, mitigation, and verification.
Buyers in the voluntary market fall into three primary categories: Credits in this market are voluntary emissions reductions, VERs or carbon offsets. Buyer motivations include wanting to manage their climate change impacts, an interest in innovative philanthropy, public relations benefits, the need to prepare for or deter federal regulations, and plans to re-sell credits for a profit.
Carbon credits developed from carbon storage projects and emission reduction activities must meet voluntary market standards in order to provide quality assurance for purchasers. Landowners and developers enroll their projects into certification programs which provide GHG accounting protocols for the quantification, monitoring, and reporting of the amount of stored carbon or reduced emissions.
Various protocols have been developed and differ across organizations depending on the type of project. Allowances, which typically authorize an entity to emit a ton of CO2e, can be auctioned or freely distributed to covered entities or other parties. Every greenhouse cap-and -trade program established to date has also allowed covered entities to submit offsets in lieu of allowances for compliance purposes. A covered entity in a cap-and-trade program, therefore, has several options for achieving compliance: The following table lays out the cap-and-trade systems currently used throughout the United States.
Beginning in , the state of California will also regulate GHGs through a cap-and-trade compliance program. This program will allow regulated emitters to purchase offsets that meet California Air Resources Board standards and protocols.
The currently approved protocols, posted at http: The Air Resources Board is also evaluating additional protocols for adoption.
Projects developed under ARB protocols may be listed on any offset project registry. If the program is determined to be successful it will most likely serve as a model for future market developments. A greenhouse gas registry is an official repository to which an entity reports emissions of one or more GHGs or changes in emission levels, typically annually. Participants can include companies reporting entity—wide or on a project—by—project basis; all or parts of state government operations; individuals; or other parties responsible for emissions or emission reductions.
A GHG registry is subject to reporting and verification requirements to ensure data consistency and quality, and registries can support voluntary or mandatory reporting requirements. Aggregators track and report contracted offsets for the purposes of verification. Some information on the carbon credit market comes from the following sources: Handbook of Carbon Offset Programs. National Energy Technology Laboratory.