Serial and binary search in java with explanation


File organization refers to the way data is stored in a file. File organization is very important because it determines the methods of access, efficiency, flexibility and storage devices to use. There are four methods of organizing files on a storage media. Retrieval requires searching sequentially through the entire file record by record to the end.

Because the record in a file are sorted in a particular order, better file searching methods like the serial and binary search in java with explanation search technique can be used to reduce the time used for searching a file.

Since the records are sorted, it is possible to know in which half of the file a particular record being searched is located, Hence this method repeatedly divides the set of records in the file into two halves and searches only the half on which the records is found.

For example, of the file has records with key fields 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and the computer is searching for a record with key field 50, it starts at 40 upwards in its search, ignoring the first half of the set. Advantages of sequential file organization The sorting makes it easy to access records. The binary chop technique can be used to reduce record search time by as much as half the time taken. Disadvantages of sequential file organization The sorting does not remove the need to access other records as the search looks for particular records.

Sequential records cannot support modern technologies that require fast access to stored records. The requirement that all records be of the same size is sometimes difficult to enforce. Random or direct file organization Records are stored randomly but accessed directly. To access a file stored randomly, a record key is used to determine where a record is stored on the storage media.

Magnetic and optical disks allow data to be stored and accessed randomly. Advantages of random file access Quick retrieval of records. The records can be of different sizes. Serial file organization Records in a file are stored and accessed one after another. The records are not stored in any way on the storage medium this type of organization is mainly used on magnetic tapes.

Advantages of serial file organization It is simple It is cheap Disadvantages of serial file organization It is cumbersome to access because you have to access all proceeding records before retrieving the one being searched. Wastage of space on medium in form of inter-record gap. It cannot support modern high speed requirements for quick record access. Indexed-sequential file organization method Almost similar to sequential method only that, an index is used to enable the computer to locate individual records on the storage media.

For example, on a magnetic drumrecords are stored serial and binary search in java with explanation on the tracks. However, each record is assigned an index that can be used to access serial and binary search in java with explanation directly.

Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. A linear search looks down a list, one item at a time, without jumping. In complexity terms this is an O n search - the time taken to search the list gets bigger at the same rate as the list does. A binary search is when you start with the middle of a sorted list, and see whether that's greater than or less than the value you're looking for, which determines whether the value is in the first or second half of the list.

Jump to the half way through the sublist, and compare again etc. This is pretty much how humans serial and binary search in java with explanation look up a word in a dictionary although we use better heuristics, obviously - if you're looking for "cat" you don't start off at "M". In complexity terms this is an O log n search - the number of search operations grows more slowly than serial and binary search in java with explanation list does, because you're halving the "search space" with serial and binary search in java with explanation operation.

As an example, suppose you were looking for U in an A-Z list of letters index ; we're looking for the value at index Compare list[12] 'M' with 'U': Smaller, look further on. Think of it as two different ways of finding your way in a phonebook.

A serial and binary search in java with explanation search is starting at the beginning, reading every name until you find what you're looking for.

A binary search, on the other hand, is when you open the book usually in the middlelook at the name on top of the page, and decide if the name you're looking for is bigger or smaller than the one you're looking for. If the name you're looking for is bigger, then you continue searching the upper part of the book in this very fashion. A linear search works by looking at each element in a list of data until it either finds the target or reaches the end.

This results in O n performance on a given list. A binary search comes with the prerequisite that the data must be sorted. We can leverage this information to decrease the number of items we need to look at to find our target. We know that if we look at a random item in the data let's say the middle item and that item is greater than our target, then all items to the right of that item will also be greater than our target.

This means that we only need to look at the left part of the data. Basically, each time we search for the target and miss, we can eliminate half of the remaining items. This gives us a nice O log n time complexity.

So you should never sort data just to perform a single binary search later on. But if you will be performing many searches say at least O log n searchesit may be worthwhile to sort the data so that serial and binary search in java with explanation can perform binary searches.

You might also consider other data structures such as a hash table in such situations. A linear search starts at the beginning of a list of values, and checks 1 by 1 in order for the result you are looking for.

A binary search starts in the middle of a sorted array, and determines which side if any the value you are looking for is on. That "half" of the array is then searched again in the same fashion, dividing the results in half by two each time. Make sure to deliberate about whether the win of the quicker binary search is worth the cost of keeping the list sorted to be able to use the binary search.

Open the book at the half way point and look at the page. Ask yourself, should this person be to the left or to the right. Repeat this procedure until you find the page where the entry should be and then either apply the same process to columns, or just search linearly along the names on the page as before.

Linear search also referred to as sequential search looks at each element in sequence from the start to see if the desired element is present in the data structure. When the amount of data is small, this search is fast.

Its easy but work needed is in proportion to the amount of data to be searched. Doubling the number of elements will double the time to search if the desired element is not present. Binary search is efficient for larger array. In this we check the middle element. If the value is bigger that what we are looking for, then look in the first half;otherwise,look in the second half.

Repeat this until the desired item is found. The table must be sorted for binary search. It eliminates half the data at each iteration. If we have elements to search, binary search takes about 10 steps, linear search steps. Binary Search finds the middle element of the array. Checks that middle value is greater or lower than the search value. If it is smaller, it gets the left side of the array and finds the middle element of that part. If it is greater, gets the right part of the array. It loops the operation until it finds the searched value.

Or if there is no value in the array finishes the search. Also you can see visualized information about Linear and Binary Search here: Thank you for your interest in this question.

Because it has attracted low-quality or spam answers that had to be removed, posting an serial and binary search in java with explanation now requires 10 reputation on this site the association bonus does not count. Would you like to answer one of these unanswered questions instead? Email Sign Up or sign in with Google. What is the difference between Linear search and Binary search? Bill the Lizard k Please read the appropriate sections in your course material which, has hopefully, been selected and prepared by your instructor s.

Failing that, a general wikipedia, c2 or google search can answer may of these sort of questions. A linear search would ask: The binary search would ask: Binary search requires the input data to be sorted; linear search doesn't Binary search requires an ordering comparison; linear search only requires equality comparisons Binary search has complexity O log n ; linear search has complexity O n as discussed earlier Binary search requires random access to the data; linear search only requires sequential access this can be very important - it means a linear search can stream data of arbitrary size.

Jon Skeet k A better analogy would be the "guess my number between 1 and game" with responses of "you got it", "too high", or "too low". The dictionary analogy seems fine to me, though it's a better match for interpolation search. Dictionary analogy is better for me Apr 4 '14 at With dictionary approach, the take away is sorting. So the importantly you must make sure the data is sorted before the binary search is started.

If not you will be jumping all over the oceans without finding the value: If you do not mark the already tried ones, this can become worse. So always do the sorting. Some Java based binary search implementation is found here digizol. Yes, the requirement that the input data is sorted is my first bullet point Mia Clarke 6, 3 41 I would like to add one difference- For linear search values need serial and binary search in java with explanation to be sorted.

But for binary search the values serial and binary search in java with explanation be in sorted order. Pick a random name "Lastname, Firstname" and look it up in your phonebook. Time both methods and report back! Prabu - Incorrect - Best case would be 1, worstwith an average of May 4 '09 at Linear Search looks through items until it finds the searched value.

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